Breakfast w Erin and Kate

002 - The Road to Revolution

002 - The Road to Revolution

Welcome back to The Emancipation Podcast Station - the place to hear about history researched and retold through the eyes of Middle school and HS students. The Road to Revolution   Seven Years War Blake-The seven years war is truly an interesting war. Many don’t realize that it was actually the first global or world war. As Ricky said the fighting actually began in 1754, however the English didn’t declare war on the French until 1756 so in actuality it is the Seven Years War. The cause of the war is pretty simple the English were obsessed with gaining the most land while the French were interested in the fur trade with the Native Americans. The English failed to gain control of the French fort “Fort  Duquesne” so the English prime minister decided this was a lack of military strength so he funded the military endeavor even more. This was a good idea at the time but later it was the main cause of the Revolutionary war because of the taxation he needed to pay back the debt. Ricky-The seven years war (more accurately the nine year war 1754-1763) is probably known as one of the most world disrupting wars in the 1700s. Guns and weaponry included: Flintlock pistols, black powder rifles, sabres, axes, tomahawks, knives, bows and arrows and basically any other blade they could get their hands on. Fighting  techniques included conventional fighting or basically standing in a line and shoot and get shot. It was stupid, british regulars were usually trained in standing and shooting sand not aiming.   Ben- The english tried to catch the british by surprise in Pennsylvania by trying to capture Fort Duchesne with George Washington leading. But, they failed and had to retreat and establish Fort Necessity, because it was necessary. They tried again with Edward Braddock leading but got slaughtered, and even Edward Braddock died. They  only started winning the war because William Pitt gave them a bunch of money, for resources. But all the money given would later put them in debt. Skylar - The French and Indian war, better known as the 7 years war, but if we’re being realistic here it’s the 9 years war. The war began in 1754, but wasn’t declared until 1756, that’s why it is the 7 years war rather than the 9 years war. It was the first global war. This war started in North American but were in many more countries like Asia, India, and the Philippines. This war ended with france giving up all claims to canada, territories east of the Mississippi, and also spain ceding Florida to Britain. Hunter-The Seven Years War like Ricky said, “it is more accurately the nine year war” it became a global war affecting the British, English, Americans, Philippines, africans, and the war even made it into India. Ethan - England became the dominant empire. It actually lasted 9 years. Also known as the French and Indian War and many more. First global war. The war started because both France, Spain, and Britain wanted the most territory for trading. During this time period George Washington was only just getting to his 20s.   Uproar over the Stamp Act Blake-The Stamp Act was enacted because of the debts left behind from the war. While it was almost unanimously voted on there was one man who thought it was unfair to tax the colonist without their representation in parliament his name was William Pitt. But the Stamp Act was still enacted and it caused major hostility from the colonist. Printers, publishers and lawyers were directly affected by the act and as I said earlier this was one of the main causes of The Revolutionary War. Ricky- the stamp act was an act set in place meant for taxing the colonist because of the seven year war (french and indian war). Squeezing the taxes from the colonists, the british had been getting money to pay the debt from the war. The act taxed all paper/paper goods. As you can imagine, the colonist weren’t going to have any of it especially seeing how each tax payment had to be paid in pounds. 1 british pound is 1.34$ (in today's’ economy) just to add a little perspective.   Ben- The Stamp Act stated that all paper must be purchased from Britain, in Britain’s currency. The currency britain used was very rare at the time, compared to the settlers paper money. Skylar - The Stamp act was made because Britain didn’t spend their money right when they were in the war which put them in deep debt. The prime minister George Greenville authored this act in march of 1765. This act said that all documents, official court documents included, as well as newspapers and basically anything else that has to be printed on paper. This paper came from London and has to be purchased in British hard currency which was very rare. Hunter-The Stamp Act was passed on March 22, 1765, leading to the uproar in the colonies over an issue the was to be the cause of the Revolution: taxation without representation. The controversial act forced the colonists to buy British stamps for every official document they owned. The stamp itself had an image of a Tudor Rose framed by the word “America” and the French phrase “Honi soit qui mal y pense”-- “Shame to him who thinks evil of it”. Ethan-The Stamp Act was a tax that was laid upon all North American printed material. It made it even more difficult since the colonists had to pay for it with british currency. This took a negative toll on the printers, publishers, and mainly anyone that used paper in their job.  It basically marked the beginning of the American Revolution.   The Townshend Acts and the committees of correspondence Blake-Once The Stamp Act was repealed the English needed some way to tax the colonist. So the English passed the Townshend Act which again angered the colonist. The Townshend Act introduced by Charles Townshend was a tax on imports of glass, lead, paint and tea. The Committees of Correspondence was formed so townships could educate people of their rights. Ricky-the townshend acts were a tax for glass, lead, paint, and tea like Blake had mentioned. This was met with protests against the british. But what angered the colonist the most was the “taxation without representation” which was another way to say “we’re being taxed without our permission”. To add to what skylar had to say they made toys out of lead, and they also put lead in paint, and bullets (or pellets) which is why they taxed it. Ben The sort of catch phrase of this whole dispute was “No taxation without representation.” The colonists said that the British did not have the right to tax them because they didn’t have the representation in the legislative body. They thought that only leaders elected by them should be able to tax them. So the british replied with the theory of visual representation, saying that the parliament was honor bound to protect the opinions and interests of the british people and subjects, even the colonists. The people hated it, of course, and denied the British right of taxation, they had many assemblies in New York and Massachusetts but were all dissolved by british governors. Skylar - The townsend acts were passed in 1767 and 1768. They were made to raise revenue for the british empire by taking north american colonies, at least the ones that they owned at the time. Widespread protest were used mostly with merchants in Boston. This act raised taxes on tea, (which led to the “Boston Tea Party”), glass, lead, and paint. I really dont get why they would tax paint and lead though. I mean do people really buy that much paint and lead though?!? I totally get the tea part though because i dont care if there is a high tax. I would die without it. Hunter-Same as Ethan said the Townshend Acts were passed in 1767-1768. But I am gonna add on to the info, the Townshend Acts also renewed a fierce debate over the British Parliament’s right to tax the colonies. In 1772 Boston revolutionary Samuel Adams urged the creation of a Committee of Correspondence to communicate with other colonial assemblies, educate townspeople about their political rights, and to rally opposition to British rule.   Ethan- The Townshend Acts were passed in 1767-1768. They were designed to raise money for the British Parliament.  There were many protests. A Committee of Correspondence was formed to communicate with other assemblies and gather  people to oppose British rule.  They also showed the people their rights. The Boston Tea Party Blake- This Boston Tea Party was the first act of aggression by The Sons of Liberty in response to the unlawful taxation. There are many stories as to what exactly happened the most popular version is The Sons of Liberty dressed as Native Americans and snuck into the Boston harbour in the middle of the night with soot covering their faces and dumped crates of tea all over the harbour. Ricky- the boston tea party was an action against both the taxes implied upon the colonists, and the boston massacre in which five colonists died. Tea back then was like coffee today, some people can’t get enough. So thirty-one hundred and thirty disguised as Indians walked on to docked ships and dumped three hundred forty two crates of tea consisting of black and green teas like Bohea,Congou, Souchong (all black teas), and Singlo, and Hyson (both green teas). Ben- The people got SO upset that 30-130 of them disguised as mohawk indians and boarded multiple ships. Then threw 342 crates of tea overboard, into the ocean. The british did make them pay for it in The Boston Bill, and close down the dock until they did, so it wasn’t without consequence. Skylar - The boston tea party was a rebellious act of some mad “ mohawk indians “ , but we’re really just some mad white people. These people threw over 300 crates of tea into the boston harbor. If were being exact though it was 342 crates. What these people did would cost about 1,700,000 dollars today.   Hunter-This framed act of American colonial defiance served as a protest against taxation. Seeking to boost the troubled east India company, British parliament adjusted import duties with the passage of the tea act in 1773. While consignees in Charleston, New York, and Philadelphia rejected tea shipments, merchants in Boston refused to concede to Patriot pressure. On the night of December 16, 1773, Samuel Adams and the sons of Liberty boarded 3 ships in the Boston harbor and threw 342 chests of tea overboard. This resulted in the passage of the punitive Coercive Act in 1774 and pushed the two sides closer to war.   Ethan- The British Prime Minister suggested the Tea Act, and when he did he completely forgot about the North American colonies.  In the process got a loan from the North of what today would be $270 million.  The North also gave the East India  Company a easy way to sell tea without dispute.   The Intolerable Acts and the First Continental Congress Blake- The Coercive Acts which became The Intolerable Acts consisted of four bills. The Boston Port bill was a fine directed towards Boston to pay for the merchandise damaged. The Government bill gave Massachusetts expanded powers to the governor. The Administration Act of Justice gave the governor the ability to send corrupt government officials to London or other colonies for trial. The Quartering Act was a bill that forced all colonies to provide shelter and food to British troops which meant even making private homes open for them. Ricky- in spring of 1744, the Coercive acts were passed. This act consisted of four bills which set fines toward boston for the boston tea party. The quartering act stated that british soldiers were to be able to stay in someone’s house. The government bill stated that the governor of massachusetts had more power. The administration of justice bill was like the government bill only it authorized the governor to send government officials to other colonies, or to london for trial. Ben- Like many other things britain did in this time period, The Coercive/Intolerable Acts  made the colonial people mad, hence the name “Intolerable.”. The british were trying to isolate the colony of boston but it had the opposite effect and unified them with the other colonies, setting up the First Continental Congress. Skylar - The intolerable Acts were supposed to isolate boston, the seat of the most radical anti-british sentiment, from other countries. The first continental congress didn’t isolate them but instead joining them together. Hunter- The First Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia at carpenters hall from September 5, 1774 to October 26, 1774. The Congress had been called for in response to the Intolerable Acts (Also known as the Coercive Act) Ethan- The Intolerable Acts consisted of 4 bills.  The Boston Port Bill made boston pay for the destroyed tea and closed the harbor until the dues were paid. The Government Bill made Massachusetts rewrite their Charter which gave much power to the royal governor.  The Quartering Act allowed British troops to be housed wherever and whenever they wanted.   Lexington and Concord Blake- The Battles at Lexington and Concord were the first official altercations between the british and the colonist. Before these fateful battles happened in February of 1775 the British declared Massachusetts as a rebellious state. That April was when it all started the British sent Massachusett governor Thomas Gage to disarm the militia so he 700 British foot soldiers to march to Concord. This prompted the famous Paul Revere to ride through towns letting the townspeople know “The British are coming!”. Revere was warned that the British were making their way to Lexington along with Concord Revere quickly rode to Lexington to warn of the British arrival. When the British arrived at Lexington the militiamen stood strong and the skirmish ensued it is still unknown to this day who fired the first shot. After everything was settled 8 militiamen were dead and only one British soldier was wounded. Ricky-this was the first time the british had clashed against the “continental army” which consisted of several militias. Imagine one night you’re just sleeping, and you hear gunshots outside your room. You grab your musket and run outside. There in organized lines you see redcoat british regulars they shoot. Ben- The interesting thing about it though was that it was these highly trained armed British generals and disciplined soldiers vs. a lot of lowly farmer militiaman with muskets. But, somehow, the colonists still won! This little skirmish was the first step towards the freedom and liberty we now have today. Skylar - In february of the year of 1775, the british parliment declared that the colony if massachutts was being wild, as they said rebelious. The colony was preparing in april of 75 that they were going to declare war on britian, and on the 19th they started [fighting. This was the first military clash of the american revolutionary war. Hunter-The battles of lexington and concord fought on April 19, 1775 kicked off the Revolutionary war (1775-83). Tensions had been building up for years between the residents of the 13 American colonies and the British authorities, particularly in Massachusetts. The  night of april 18, 1775 hundreds of British troops marched from Boston to nearby Concord in order to take an arms cache. Paul Revere and other riders sounded the alarm, the colonial militiamen began mobilizing to intercept the Redcoat column. Ethan- These battles were fought on the 19th of April, 1775 and as Ricky said were the first military clashes of the war. The British ordered that Lieutenant Colonel Francis Smith gather 700 troops and storm reported ammo caches.

Duration: 22 min

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